Adiyaman (Kurdish: Semsûr) is a city in southeastern Turkey, capital of the Adıyaman Province. It is one of the fastest-growing cities in Turkey. The population rose from 100,045 (1990) to 202,735 (2010 census figures).
The area has been inhabited as far back as it's possible to discover. Research in the cave of Palanlı 10 km north of Adıyaman show occupation in 40,000 BC and other digs in Samsat reveal continuous occupation through the stone and Bronze Ages.
From 900BC onwards came waves of invasions from Assyrians, Persians, and Macedonians until the Commagene kingdom was founded in 69BC. This was the civilization that built the statues on top of nearby Mount Nemrut. The capital was in Samsat (Samosata) but the town of Adıyaman was a walled city of the Commagene. The city walls of Adıyamanhave been restored and replaced many times since.
The Commagene kingdom lasted until the Romans came in 72AD. Yet more campaigns and invasions followed and Adıyaman was controlled by Byzantines 395-670, Ummayads from 670 and then Abbasids 758-926. Then the area returned to Byzantine control during 859-1114. The Arabs returned from 1114 to 1204, which is around the time where the Selcuk arrive at the area. From this time and for the next 400 years, the area witnessed an era of various occupations and clashes: Between 1230-1250 the attacks from the Mogols, in 1298 the invasion from Mamluks, and then in 1393 occupation by Timurlenk. This ear of the Middle Age is characterized by the lack of stability and continues till 1516, where the city is encapsulated by Ottoman land following the battles against the Persian Empire. In modern times, following the formation of the Turkish Republic, Adiyaman had a status of a province under the Malatya rule till 1954. On December 1, 1954, the city was announced a formal municipality.
There are many highly rated restaurants in Adiyaman. Wheat based foods are very popular due to the agricultural landscape of the area, so many dishes include sümüt (dried bread) or cracked wheat. Some of the specialities of the area are stuffed köfte (a kind of meatball with pine nuts and spices), karniyarık (a fried eggplant stuffed with meat and veggies), and Kırma (a walnut pastry dessert.) Rabbit is also a dish served locally in Adiyaman.
Museums & Attractions
• Mount Nemrud - Arguably the most sought-after attraction in Adiyaman is the UNESCO World Heritage Site on Mount Nemrud. The mountain itself is about 2.134 m tall and is one of the highest peaks in the region.The Hierotheseion temple and funerary mound was built by King Antiochos I of Commagene during the Hellenistic period and is truly a fascinating place for visitors.Tourists typically visit Nemrud during April through October.There are overnight tours running out of Malatya (Kurdish: Meletî) or Kahta.
• Caves of Pirin - Located about 4 km from Adiyaman, the ruins/caves of Pirin offer visitors insight into an ancient civilization. These have been used as a burial ground for thousands of years. The sights include the ruins of the city and burial caves carved into the rock
• Severan Bridge(Cendere)- This partially restored Roman bridge is located near the village of Burmapinar. It crosses the Cendere creek and is constructed of 92 stones, each weighing about 10 tons as a simple, unadorned, single majestic arch on two rocks at the narrowest point of the creek. At 34.2 m clear span, the structure is quite possibly the second largest extant arch bridge by the Romans. It is 120 m long and 7 m wide.
• Adiyaman Museum - This museum focuses mostly of local ancient history, including coins and pottery in addition to some artifacts from the Pirin Ruins on display.
• The Church of St. Peter and St. Paul – An inscription dated 1905 states that this Syriac church dedicated to St. Paul is an extremely old structure. A registered building, the church is still in use by Adıyaman’s few remaining Syriac Christians
There is a domestic airport in Adiyaman, with services to both Istanbul and Ankara. Buses traveling to most major Turkish cities are also available to bring tourists. Once in the city, visitors may walk, hire a taxi, or ride the buses to get from point to point